Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
https://actalb.org/article/doi/10.1590/S2179-975X6822
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Original Article

Reproduction of the invasive largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802) in a Neotropical reservoir with suggestions to management and control

Reprodução do black-bass invasor Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802) em um reservatório neotropical, com sugestões para manejo e controle

Matheus Oliveira Freitas; Vanessa Maria Ribeiro; Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

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Abstract

Abstract: Aim: The largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides was introduced in more than 50 countries for the purpose of sport fishing. In Brazil, records date from 1922, and nowadays many populations are known to occur in the southern region. Here we investigated the reproductive biology of this species in a small reservoir in southern Brazil, to understand the role of the reproductive strategy in the invasion process and assist in its management. We conclude with suggestions for the management in local scale, as this species can bring relevant problems to the public supply through trophic cascade and other negative effects.

Methods: Samples were performed with different methods, between May 2011 and April 2012. All fishes were measured, and the reproductive season was determined through the relative frequency of reproductive stages and the gonadosomatic index. Sex ratio was calculated monthly and for each total length (TL) class and compared with the estimates presented in the literature. Total length at maturity (L50, length at which 50% of the individuals were mature) was estimated for females, males and the entire study population.

Results: A total of 565 individuals of M. salmoides were analyzed. Overall sex-ratio did not differ significantly. The monthly distribution of the gonadosomatic index for females and males showed higher values between August (late winter) and November 2011 (austral spring). 𝛽-Binomial modelling of sex-ratio data of native (n=1) and introduced populations (n=7) showed a lower proportion of females in its native range. All individuals > 21.5 cm TL were mature (L95), and L50 was calculated at 18.7 cm TL. After the reproductive period, an increase in the abundance of young individuals (≤ 7.0 cm TL) was registered, corresponding to 50% of all individuals collected. The relative frequency of mature individuals and the variation in the gonadosomatic index indicate a prolonged spawning period during the austral spring, coinciding with the increase in temperature.

Conclusions: Results suggested that some changes in life history traits, such as the early sexual maturation and the long reproductive period, coupled with a remarkable adaptability, may have facilitated the establishment of M. salmoides populations in this reservoir. The illegal and intentional stocking by anglers plays a central role in the introduction and dispersal of M. salmoides in Brazil. We encourage studies on the sanitary quality of this fish for human consumption, so that massive campaigns of education the population to encourage capture and consumption are implemented by the competent authorities as a control measure in local scale, combined with targeted samplings with artificial baits during the reproductive period, identification, and removal of nests and fingerlings using electric fishing or trap nets during the recruitment period.

Keywords

exotic species, Centrarchidae, reproductive period, predator, size at maturity

Resumo

Resumo: Objetivo: O black-bass Micropterus salmoides foi introduzido em mais de 50 países para fins de pesca esportiva. No Brasil, os primeiros registros datam de 1922 e atualmente muitas populações são conhecidas na região sul. Neste trabalho investigamos a biologia reprodutiva desta espécie em um pequeno reservatório no sul do Brasil, para entender o papel da estratégia reprodutiva no processo de invasão e auxiliar no manejo. Concluímos com sugestões para o manejo em escala local, pois esta espécie pode trazer problemas relevantes ao abastecimento público através da cascata trófica e outros efeitos negativos.

Métodos: As amostragens foram realizadas com diferentes métodos, entre maio de 2011 e abril de 2012. Todos os peixes foram medidos, e a época reprodutiva foi determinada através da frequência relativa dos estádios reprodutivos e do índice gonadossomático. A razão sexual foi calculada mensalmente para cada classe de comprimento total (CT) e comparada com as estimativas apresentadas na literatura. O comprimento total de primeira maturidade (L50, comprimento em que 50% dos indivíduos estavam maduros) foi estimado para fêmeas, machos e toda a população de estudo.

Resultados: Um total de 565 indivíduos de M. salmoides foi analisado. A razão geral entre os sexos não foi significativa. A distribuição mensal do índice gonadossomático para fêmeas e machos apresentou maiores valores entre agosto (final do inverno) e novembro de 2011 (primavera austral). A modelagem 𝛽-binomial dos dados de proporção sexual de populações nativas (n=1) e introduzidas (n=7) mostrou uma menor proporção de fêmeas em sua área nativa. Todos os indivíduos > 21,5 cm CT eram maduros (L95), e o L50 calculado foi de 18,7 cm TL. Após o período reprodutivo, foi registrado um aumento na abundância de indivíduos jovens (≤ 7,0 cm CP), correspondendo a 50% de todos os indivíduos coletados. A frequência relativa de indivíduos maduros e a variação do índice gonadossomático indicam um período prolongado de desova durante a primavera austral, coincidindo com o aumento da temperatura.

Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que algumas mudanças nas características de vida, como a maturação sexual precoce e o longo período reprodutivo, aliadas a uma notável adaptabilidade, podem ter facilitado o estabelecimento de populações de M. salmoides neste reservatório. A estocagem ilegal e intencional por pescadores tem papel central na introdução e dispersão de M. salmoides no Brasil. Incentivamos estudos sobre a qualidade sanitária desse pescado para consumo humano, para que campanhas massivas de educação da população para incentivar a captura e consumo sejam implementadas pelos órgãos competentes como medida de controle em escala local, combinada com amostragens direcionadas com iscas artificiais durante o período reprodutivo, identificação e retirada de ninhos e alevinos por meio de pesca elétrica ou rede-armadilha durante o período de recrutamento.
 

Palavras-chave

espécie exótica, Centrarchidae, período reprodutivo, predador, tamanho de primeira maturação

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Submitted date:
10/19/2022

Accepted date:
05/23/2023

Publication date:
06/30/2023

649eed7aa95395072a6bb465 alb Articles
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