Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
https://actalb.org/article/doi/10.1590/S2179-975X4123
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Original Article

Fish parasites from a neotropical tidal river within a biodiversity hotspot

Parasitos de peixes de um rio costeiro neotropical dentro de um hotspot de biodiversidade

Luddy Searom Carias de Moraes; Ana Paula Lula Costa; Ricardo Massato Takemoto; Andre Andrian Padial

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Abstract

Aim: We investigated the ichthyofauna parasite component community across a gradient of anthropogenic pressures of the Guaraguaçu River, south Brazil, a Neotropical river of central importance for biodiversity conservation.

Methods: After fish sampling, all fish were identified, measured, weighed and eviscerated. The viscera and gills were inspected for parasite screening and subsequent identification. Parasite diversity estimators were calculated for the most abundant host species.

Results: A total of 159 host specimens from 12 species were examined, being 140 (88.05%) found to be infected with at least one parasite, including 14 new parasite occurrences. The most widely distributed parasite was the nematode Contracaecum sp., found in 8 host species. The highest mean infection intensity and mean abundance was observed for the monogenean Aphanoblastella mastigatus, infecting the Silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. The Shannon-Wiener, Jost and Simpson indexes were higher for the more abundant fishes, except for the Trahira Hoplias malabaricus. Most host species harbored parasites in poorly aggregated distribution, according to the discrepancy index. The Berger-Parker index showed monogenean dominance in all hosts except for H. malabaricus. We found little evidence for parasite infracommunity changes across the gradient of the river.

Conclusions: We described the infection patterns in an important Neotropical river. The new parasite occurrences highlight the contribution of our study. Fish-parasite interactions changed throughout the river stretches, and we argue that it does not necessarily means changes in diversity and abundance of parasite within species, but the rearrange of interactions. Moreover, it seems that parasites are more abundant in most impacted sites, another reason to continue the monitoring.

Keywords

neotropical tidal river, parasite community, biodiversity conservation, host species, anthropogenic pressures

Resumo

Objetivo: A comunidade componente de parasitas da ictiofauna foi investigada ao longo de um gradiente de pressões antropogênicas no Rio Guaraguaçu, sul do Brasil, um rio Neotropical com grande importância para a conservação da biodiversidade.

Métodos: Após a coleta, todos os peixes foram identificados, medidos, pesados e eviscerados. As vísceras e brânquias foram inspecionadas para coleta e subsequente identificação de parasitas. Estimadores de diversidade de parasitas foram calculados para as espécies de hospedeiros mais abundantes.

Resultados: Um total de 159 espécimes de hospedeiros de 12 espécies foram examinados, sendo 140 (88,05%) infectados com pelo menos um parasita, incluindo 14 novas ocorrências de parasitas. O parasita mais amplamente distribuído foi o nematoide Contracaecum sp., encontrado em 8 espécies de hospedeiros. As maiores intensidades de infecção e abundância foram observadas para o monogenético Aphanoblastella mastigatus, infectando o Jundiá Rhamdia quelen. Os índices de Shannon-Wiener, Jost e Simpson foram maiores para os peixes mais abundantes, exceto para a Traíra Hoplias malabaricus. A maioria das espécies de hospedeiros abrigava parasitas com distribuição pouco agregada, de acordo com o índice de discrepância. O índice de Berger-Parker mostrou a dominância de monogenéticos em todos os hospedeiros, exceto H. malabaricus. Encontramos poucas evidências de mudanças nas infracomunidades de parasitas ao longo do gradiente do rio.

Conclusões: Descrevemos os padrões de infecção em um importante rio Neotropical. As novas ocorrências de parasitas destacam a importância de nosso estudo. Interações entre parasitos e peixes mudaram ao longo dos setores do rio, e isso não necessariamente resulta em mudanças na diversidade e abundância de parasitos dentro de cada espécie, mas um rearranjo das interações. Além disso, parece que os parasitas são mais abundantes na maioria dos locais impactados, o que é mais uma razão para continuar o monitoramento.

Palavras-chave

rio neotropical de maré, comunidade parasitária, conservação de biodiversidade, espécie hospedeira, pressão antropogênica

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Submitted date:
05/02/2023

Accepted date:
03/04/2024

Publication date:
03/19/2024

65f9cd40a953954ef20d5d72 alb Articles
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Acta Limnol. Bras. (Online)

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