Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Original Article

Longitudinal patterns in distribution of native and non-native fish species in a regulated temperate Neotropical river

Padrões longitudinais na distribuição de espécies nativas e não-nativas de peixes em um rio Neotropical temperado regulado

Andrea Bertora; Fabián Grosman; Pablo Sanzano; Juan José Rosso

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Abstract:: Aim: We evaluated the longitudinal patterns in distribution of native and non-native fish species in a hydrologically fragmented and environmentally variable lowland temperate river.

Methods: Four sites representing contrasting habitat and environmental conditions were sampled: a clear water reservoir, a turbid water lagoon and two river reaches with clear and turbid waters each. Environmental variables were measured in situ and in the laboratory. Fishes were sampled using trammel and beach seine nets.

Results: Two main environmental scenarios were identified: the upstream reaches, with colder, clearer and nutrient-oxygen poor waters (reservoir and its downstream river) and the downstream reaches, where turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity and nutrients largely increased (lagoon and its downstream river). Fourteen species with a high non-native/native (4:10) ratio were collected. Non-native species (NNS) were confined to lentic conditions, where the silverside Odontesthes bonariensis dominated. Native species (NS) better thrive in lotic conditions where the turbid scenario further favored tolerant species. Environmental conditions also seemed to influence the distribution of NNS. Fish assemblage structure considering either, all species, NNS or NS significantly differed among sampled reaches and habitat (lentic-lotic) conditions. Total fish abundance was higher in lentic reaches. Species richness and diversity were favored by the turbid scenario. Beta diversity was mostly explained by the replacement component revealing the substitution of species as the main pattern of variation. Water conductivity, nitrates and dissolved oxygen were the most important predictor variables in the best and most frequent explanatory models of fish assemblage structures.

Conclusions: Our results revealed that a low diversified Neotropical fish fauna is disrupted by habitat fragmentation due to the creation of artificial impoundments and the introduction of NNS. Environmental conditions further modulate the fish assemblage structure by affecting the distribution of species where tolerant species were favored by turbid, nutrient-rich waters with higher conductivity and pH.


reservoir, eutrophication, non-native species, fishes, Sauce Grande river


Resumo:: Objetivo: Neste trabalho avaliamos os padrões longitudinais de distribuição de espécies nativas e não-nativas de peixes em um rio de planície fragmentado hidrologicamente e variável limnologicamente.

Métodos: Quatro locais representando condições ambientais e de habitat contrastantes foram amostrados: um reservatório de águas claras, uma lagoa de águas turvas e dois trechos do rio, um de águas claras e outro de águas turvas. As variáveis ambientais foram medidas in situ e no laboratório. Os peixes foram amostrados com redes de arrasto e de espera.

Resultados: Dois cenários ambientais foram identificados. Um à montante, com águas mais frias, claras e pobres em nutrientes e oxigênio dissolvido (o reservatório e o trecho do rio abaixo do mesmo) e outro, à jusante, onde a turbidez, oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura da água, condutividade e os nutrientes aumentaram consideravelmente (a lagoa e o trecho do rio abaixo da mesma). Quatorze espécies com uma alta proporção entre espécies não-nativas e nativas (4/10) foram coletadas. As espécies não-nativas (NNS) estiveram confinadas a condições lênticas, onde o peixe-rei Odontesthes bonariensis dominou as assembleias de peixes. As espécies nativas (NS) proliferaram melhor em condições lóticas onde o cenário de águas turvas favoreceu as espécies tolerantes. As condições ambientais também parecem ter influenciado a distribuição das NNS. A estrutura da assembleia de peixes considerando todas as espécies em conjunto ou NS e NNS em separado, foram significativamente diferentes entre os trechos amostrados e condições de habitat (lêntico-lótico). A abundância total de peixes foi maior em trechos lênticos. A riqueza de espécies e a diversidade foram favorecidas pelo cenário de turbidez. A análise da diversidade beta foi explicada em maior parte pelo turnover revelando a substituição de espécies como o principal padrão de variação. A condutividade elétrica da água, os nitratos e oxigênio dissolvido foram as variáveis preditivas mais importantes nos melhores e mais frequentes modelos explicativos das estruturas da assembleia de peixes.

Conclusões: Nossos resultados revelaram que uma fauna de peixes Neotropicais pouco diversificada é alterada pela fragmentação do habitat devido à construção de barragens e pela introdução de NNS. As condições ambientais modularam ainda mais a estrutura da assembleia de peixes afetando a distribuição de suas espécies onde as espécies tolerantes foram favorecidas por aguas turvas, ricas em nutrientes, com maior condutividade e pH.


reservatório, eutrofização, espécies introduzidas, peixes, rio Sauce Grande


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