Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
https://actalb.org/article/doi/10.1590/S2179-975X11123
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Original Article

Spatial variation, more than ontogenetic, explains the diet of Bryconamericus exodon in two Pantanal rivers

Variação espacial, mais que a ontogenética, explica a dieta de Bryconamericus exodon em dois rios do Pantanal

Karoline Aparecida de Sena; Yzel Rondon Súarez

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Abstract

Aim: Studies of natural variations in fish diet allow, in turn, a better understanding of environmental changes along the hydrological cycle that can affect resources and, hence, biodiversity conservation. With this in mind, the present study aimed to understand how spatial and ontogenetic aspects (using Standard Length as proxy) define dietary composition, trophic position and trophic niche breadth for a small characid (Bryconamericus exodon) in streams located in two rivers of the Brazilian Pantanal. We also assessed whether spatial differences influence the structuring of trophic networks.

Methods: Fish were sampled monthly in the rainy season (October/2017 to March/2018) in four tributaries of the Negro and Apa Rivers, using different sampling methods. In the laboratory, fish were measured and weighed, followed by excision of stomach for posterior analysis.

Results: We analyzed 211 individuals, 126 from the Apa River (Standard lengthmin= 11.28mm; Standard lengthmax= 43.53mm) and 85 from the Negro River (Standard lengthmin= 13.26mm; Standard lengthmax= 40.05mm), that consumed mainly aquatic insects (Alimentary indexTotal= 87.97%), followed by terrestrial insects (Alimentary indexTotal= 9.02%). Dietary composition was mainly influenced by spatial variation (Pseudo-F1,194=12.21; p<0.001), followed by ontogenetic variation (Pseudo-F1,190=7.23; p<0.001), however, for trophic niche breadth, we did detect a higher importance of spatial variation (t=4.71; p<0.001) and an absence of ontogenetic variation (t=1.24; p=0.213). No spatial variation was detected for complementary specialization (p=0.998); only connectance showed a significant variation (p=0.047) with higher mean values in the Negro River (C= 0.27 ± 0.016) when compared to those of populations in the Apa River (C=0.22 ± 0.019). In addition, trophic position was not influenced by spatial (t= -1.77; p=0.077) or ontogenetic (t=0.69; p=0.494) variations.

Conclusions: B. exodon is considered an insectivorous species whose dietary composition can be explained more by spatial than ontogenetic variation.

Keywords

trophic niche breadth, trophic ecology, trophic position, complex network

Resumo

Objetivo: O estudo das variações naturais na dieta dos peixes permite, por sua vez, uma melhor compreensão das alterações ambientais ao longo do ciclo hidrológico que podem afetar os recursos e, consequentemente, a conservação da biodiversidade. Com isso em mente, o presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender como os aspectos espaciais e ontogenéticos (usando o Comprimento padrão como proxy) definem a composição da dieta, posição trófica e amplitude de nicho trófico para um pequeno caracídeo (Bryconamericus exodon) em riachos localizados em dois rios do Pantanal brasileiro. Também avaliamos se as diferenças espaciais influenciam na estruturação das redes tróficas.

Métodos: Os peixes foram amostrados mensalmente na estação chuvosa (Outubro/2017 a Março/2018) em quatro tributários dos rios Negro e Apa, utilizando diferentes métodos de amostragem. Em laboratório, os peixes foram medidos e pesados, seguido de excisão do estômago para posterior análise.

Resultados: Foram analisados 211 indivíduos, sendo 126 do Apa (Comprimento padrãomin= 11,28mm; Comprimento padrãomax= 43,53mm) e 85 do Negro (Comprimento padrãomin= 13,26mm; Comprimento padrãomax= 40,05mm), que consumiram principalmente insetos aquáticos (Índice alimentarTotal= 87,97%), seguidos de insetos terrestres (Índice alimentarTotal=9,02%). A composição da dieta foi influenciada principalmente pela variação espacial (Pseudo-F1,194=12,21; p<0,001), seguida da variação ontogenética (Pseudo-F1,190=7,23; p<0,001), no entanto, para amplitude de nicho trófico, detectamos uma maior importância da variação espacial (t=4,71; p<0,001) e ausência de variação ontogenética (t=1,24; p=0,213). Não foi detectada variação espacial para especialização complementar (p=0,998); apenas a conectância obteve uma variação significativa (p=0,047), com valores médios maiores no rio Negro (C= 0,27 ± 0,016) quando comparados aos das populações do rio Apa (C=0,22 ± 0,019). Além disso, a posição trófica não foi influenciada por variações espaciais (t=-1,77; p=0,077) ou ontogenéticas (t=0,69; p=0,494).

Conclusões: B. exodon é considerada uma espécie insetívora, cuja composição da dieta pode ser explicada mais pela variação espacial do que pela variação ontogenética.

Palavras-chave

amplitude de nicho trófico, ecologia trófica, posição trófica, redes complexas

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Submitted date:
12/15/2023

Accepted date:
04/19/2024

Publication date:
06/11/2024

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