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Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
https://actalb.org/article/doi/10.1590/S2179-975X0420
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Original Article

Growth dynamic on a co-cultivation of two Chlorophyta microalgae exposed to copper

Dinâmica de crescimento no co-cultivo de duas microalgas Chlorophyta expostas ao cobre.

Rafael Barty Dextro

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Abstract

Abstract:: Aim: Copper is an essential nutrient for the phytoplankton, but it can also act as a toxic agent, depending on its concentration. Considering the continuous increase of this metal in the natural aquatic ecosystems, understanding its actions in co-cultivation scenarios is of great relevance. Experiments with the combination of different species resemble more accurately the natural conditions, in contrast of results obtained in single-species tests, which cannot be directly used to describe observed effects on the environment.

Methods: Therefore, growth parameters were investigated and compared on the co-cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana and Kirchneriella obesa and their separate cultures exposed to three different free copper concentrations (control 6x10-9, intermediate 2x10-7 and high 1.5x10-6 mol.L-1 Cu2+).

Results: C. sorokiniana registered more cells in the control of the unialgal culture while K. obesa had higher cell density in the control of the co-cultivation. Growth rates decreased with the increment of copper in the unialgal conditions. However, both species maintained a high growth rate in the co-cultivation intermediate copper concentrations. Biovolume varied despite the cultivation method, being strongly related to the metal’s concentration. The maximum photosynthetic efficiency decreased in higher copper.

Conclusions: According to the results observed, no competitive exclusion occurred and both species were affected by copper in unialgal and co-cultivation conditions, with K. obesa being favored by the co-cultivation, which seems to have an attenuation effect on copper toxicity until intermediate concentrations. Ecologically, the results suggest that communities deal better with the toxic effects caused by intermediate copper concentrations than single-species cultures.

Keywords

Chlorophyta, community, metal, microalgae

Resumo

Resumo:: Objetivo: Cobre é um nutriente essencial para o fitoplâncton, mas ele também pode agir como um agente tóxico, dependendo de sua concentração. Considerando o crescente incremento deste metal em ecossistemas aquáticos naturais, compreender sua ação em cenários de co-cultura é de grande relevância. Experimentos com a combinação de diferentes espécies assemelham-se com maior precisão as condições encontradas na natureza, contrastando com os resultados obtidos em testes unialgais, que não podem ser diretamente usados para descrever efeitos observáveis no ambiente.

Métodos: Deste modo, parâmetros de crescimento foram investigados e comparados na co-cultura de Chlorella sorokiniana e Kirchneriella obesa e seus cultivos individuais expostos a três diferentes concentrações de cobre livre (controle 6x10-9, intermediário 2x10-7 e elevado 1.5x10-6 mol.L-1 Cu2+).

Resultados: C. sorokiniana apresentou mais células em seu controle unialgal enquanto K. obesa teve maior densidade celular no controle da co-cultura. As taxas de crescimento decairam com o incremento de cobre nas condições unialgais. No entanto, ambas as espécies mantiveram elevada taxa de crescimento na co-cultura em concentrações intermediárias do metal. O biovolume variou independentemente do método de cultivo, sendo diretamente relacionado à concentração de cobre. A eficiência fotossintética máxima decaiu sob elevado cobre.

Conclusões: De acordo com os resultados observados, não houve exclusão competitiva e ambas as espécies foram afetadas pelo cobre em condições unialgais ou de co-cultura, sendo que K. obesa foi favorecida no cultivo em conjunto, que parece apresentar uma atenuação da toxicidade do cobre em concentrações intermediárias. Ecologicamente, os resultados sugerem que comunidades lidam melhor com efeitos tóxicos causados por concentrações intermediárias de cobre do que culturas isoladas.
 

Palavras-chave

Chlorophyta, comunidade, metal, microalga

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Submitted date:
01/15/2020

Accepted date:
05/25/2021

Publication date:
06/18/2021

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